Ancient Peruvian beer breweries
September 17, 2010 1 Comment
Rich Peruvian women brewed beer
When it comes to drunken women, the Peruvians have always been different. In many societies, women are not supposed to drink at all. They certainly aren’t supposed to get knee-walking, rip-roaring drunk, matching shot for shot with a man. It’s generally considered unladylike, and these days, studies keep coming out indicating that overimbibing may have more adverse effects on women’s health than it does on men’s.
But the Peruvians of today, especially those living in the Andes, indulge in equal-opportunity carousing. It appears that they simply are following a tradition that may be more than 1000 years old.
What drove agriculture? Beer or bread, naturally
A few years ago, archaeologists discovered large broken vats on top of a 8000-foot-high mesa, Cerro Baul, in the Peruvian Andes. Among the vats were the remnants of smaller vessels and some shawl pins that belonged to noblewomen of the Wari people, a pre-Incan civilization that suddenly disappeared about 1000 years ago. From about 600 AD to 1000 AD, however, the civilization flourished around Cerro Baul. Nobles lived on the mountaintop, and farmers and middle-class artisans and technicians lived and worked in the valleys below.
The researchers felt that they must have stumbled across one of the world’s ancient breweries. Breweries attract anthropologists and historians because beer competes with bread as the driving force behind the development of agriculture. Every civilization appears to have brewed, usually using grains like wheat and barley. Some of the oldest suspected breweries date back as far as 3000 BC in Egypt, and suspected breweries have also been discovered in what is now Iraq.
But the equivocal “suspected” is what makes the Peruvian find so delicious. Ancient breweries defy clear identification because the beer was brewed from the same grains used to make bread; thus, it is difficult to distinguish the cereal-based residue on pot fragments as the result of brewing vs. baking. What the brewery-hunters of the world needed was a civilization that used some unusual ingredient in its beer, something that they didn’t also use in their bread. And they found it in the Wari people of ancient Peru.
Corn fermented, pepper-flavored beer
Even today, native Peruvian beer stands out among the world’s brews. It is fermented from corn and flavored with berries from the pepper tree. No other beer in the world has this combination, and the Peruvians apparently do not use the pepper tree to make bread. This concoction, called “chicha” today, is apparently very like what the Wari people brewed high on their mesa 1000 years ago.
The researchers latched onto pepper tree residues as the ingredient that would allow them to definitively identify an ancient brewery. The pepper berries contain a compound called oxalic acid that can adhere to ceramic pottery for centuries. Using techniques like liquid chromatography, they were able to confirm that this compound was indeed present in the large vats on Cerro Baul.
Wild, ancient Peruvian bacchanal
They had suspected as much. The vats themselves were huge and obviously designed to hold liquid. The surprise was that the brewery and the vats appeared to have been destroyed in a single night of carousing just before the Wari abandoned their mountaintop. Researchers surmise that the nobles of the town engaged in ritual drinking and drunkenness—the big guns got the larger Wari beer steins—and then, when the ceremony ended, they destroyed their ceramic vats and set the place on fire. After the building had burned to the ground, the nobles placed jewelry on top of the remains, possibly to identify it as a sacred place.
Interestingly, among the destruction, the archaeologists found the noblewomen’s shawl pins. They surmise that the women may have brewed the beer; in later Incan civilizations, upper-class women brewed beer, and only upper-class people drank chicha with the pepper-tree flavor added.
Of course, you have to taste test it
When it was active, the brewery may have produced hundreds of gallons of beer a week. In an effort to experience the flavor, some archaeologists recreated the ancient concoction and report that it is not quite as dark as a modern-day stout, and has sweet, peppery flavor with a bitter finish.