Can animals sense disaster?
July 20, 2010 1 Comment
Animals head for the hills when natural disaster looms
People living and working in national parks where the devastating 2006 tsunami hit made a startling observation within a few days of the disaster. They had found no animal carcasses of any kind. It appeared that animals had somehow managed to avoid the killer waves that resulted in the deaths of tens of thousands of people.
In Yala National Park in Sri Lanka, people flying over the area in helicopters observed horrible devastation—uprooted trees, cars upended, cars in trees—everywhere the waves had roared over the 391-square mile preserve. But one thing they didn’t see were the bodies of dead animals. The park is home to Asian elephants, crocodiles, buffalo, monkeys, and leopards, and every animal appeared to have made for the hills before the waves swamped their habitat.
Some turtle carcasses have washed ashore, but they seem to be the only notable wildlife deaths in the region. At an elephant trekking center in Thailand, two elephants named Poker and Thandung suddenly went nuts, broke their chains, and headed for the hills, carrying four lucky Japanese tourists on their backs. The elephants and the tourists survived the waters that flooded over the area five minutes after the elephants broke free.
A long history of doom-detection
A long, but anecdotal, history of animals’ ability to sense doom underscores the observations from this most recent tragedy. As far back as about 400 B.C., we noted unusual animal activity just preceding a natural disaster. The Greek historian Diodorus observed in 383 B.C. that two days before a destructive earthquake, the rats, snakes, weasels and even worms had decamped from the affected city. Worms—dwelling in the ground and possibly well-equipped with underground sensors—also figured in a mass animal exodus recorded prior to the 1755 earthquake in Lisbon, Portugal, the worst natural disaster on record prior to the recent Asian tsunami.
Dogs bark, geese honk, livestock get bull-headed. In the big Alaskan earthquake of 1964, a rancher could not get his cows to stay in the lowland pastures; the stubborn bovines insisted on grazing in the hills. Later that day, a huge earthquake hit, triggering a tsunami that wiped out coastal Alaskan towns, but the cows survived on their hillsides.
Are humans missing a vital organ?
Animals appear to know something’s coming possibly because they have what one researcher has described as sensory organs to detect tiny changes leading up to a big event. We, unrefined creatures that we are, do not detect these micro-changes and live in ignorance until the disaster hits. But proving that animals have something we don’t in this regard is a bit difficult because we can’t recreate earthquakes or tsunamis in the lab. Sure, we could shake a table or wash water over a false beach, but it’s the signals leading up to the events that we strive to understand. Since we cannot detect them, we don’t know what they are, and we can’t re-create them.
Our only chance of gaining some experimental insight into this phenomenon is to rely, as so many scientists do, on solid preparation for sheer chance. A marine biologist on the U.S. east coast has done just that, and in the process has become the first scientist to acquire actual proof that animals respond to impending disaster.
Sharks reveal a bit of the secret
The biologist, Michelle Heupel, had been radiotagging sharks off the coast of Florida when Tropical Storm Gabrielle approached. Six hours before the storm made landfall, all 14 sharks she was monitoring suddenly evacuated their nursery site. She and others believe that the sharks registered the drop in barometric pressure that preceded the storm. The drop made depths feel shallower, and the sharks instinctively swam en masse for deeper waters. Heupel got another chance to monitor this movement when Hurricane Charley swept onto the east coast. Again, the sharks she was monitoring all rapidly exited the area hours before the storm moved in.