The mysterious reproductive life of the giant panda

Photo credit: Mehgan Murphy, Smithsonian’s National Zoo

National Zoo’s giant panda had pseudopregnancy

National Zoo officials announced today that Mei Xiang (link has Panda Cam!), who had been monitored for several months for pregnancy, was not pregnant after all. Instead, she was experiencing a common feature of panda endocrinology, the pseudopregnancy.

Panda pseudopregnancy a common event

How could officials not be sure for months about whether or not the pregnancy was real? Panda pseudopregnancy so perfectly mimics an actual pregnancy that even hormone levels follow those of a real gestation. Staff had been monitoring her by ultrasound and blood testing, and even though ultrasound had yet to show a viable fetus, whether the pregnancy was real or pseudo was not confirmed until the hormones wrote the final chapter.

Pseudopregnancy hormones like pregnancy hormones

Late this month, Mei Xiang showed a drop in progesterone hormone. When hormone levels hit baseline in a possibly pregnant panda, one of two things can happen: a birth, or confirmation of pseudopregnancy. The progesterone decline set the clock on a 24-hour watch to see if Mei Xiang would bear a cub. She didn’t.

Ovulation once a year!

Giant pandas ovulate only once a year. Regardless of whether conception occurs, the female panda will appear pregnant, behave as though she is pregnant, and register the hormone patterns of pregnancy. If conception does not occur in that one annual opportunity, a female panda will almost always enter into a pseudopregnant state. Mei Xiang has done that five times. She’s also experienced a genuine pregnancy, bearing a cub in 2005 that now lives in China as part of a panda breeding program.

Panda soon to be back for public viewing

Mei Xiang has been sequestered during her pseudopregnancy, but her habitat at the zoo will now open again for public viewing. During her pseudopregnancy, her behaviors included reduced activity and appetite. These are now both expected to increase.

For your consideration

Pandas have some unusual life history strategies, including being food specialists and often accidentally suffocating their offspring. And, it appears that many ovulations result in pseudopregnancy. What might be an explanation for why pandas are so prone to entering a pseudopregnant state if conception does not occur? Could the behaviors that accompany the pseudopregnancy have anything to do with it?

In pandas, the hormones of a pseudopregnancy are similar to those of a real pregnancy. What pathways underlie the female’s production of these hormones of pseudopregnancy?

Women can also experience pseudopregnancy, sometimes referred to as “hysterical pregnancy.” It can even involve abdominal distention and in some cases, hormonal changes. What are some of the physiological underpinnings of a pseudopregnancy in women?

Finally, dogs and mice are also known for having pseudopregnancies. Do you think the pressures that result in these pseudopregnancies are similar to those that result in a false pregnancy in the panda? Why or why not?

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About ejwillingham
Sciwriter/editor/autism-ADHD parent. SciMaven @ http://doublexscience.blogspot.com/. I speak my pieces @ http://daisymayfattypants.blogspot.com/ & @ http://thebiologyfiles.blogspot.com/

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