October 8, 2010 Leave a comment
Columbus may have made his name for the history books by “finding” the Americas, but his real claim to fame may have been his world-class snake oil salesman ability. After returning from his famed voyage of 1492, Columbus bowed before his patrons, Spain’s King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, and spun a tale of precious metals in the new world. His fairy stories about a land of silver and gold lit a fire under the Spanish royals, leading them to finance a much larger second expedition to the New World Columbus had stumbled on.
Tall tales of silver and gold
His tall tales also attracted a huge crowd of settlers with gold in their eyes and riches on the brain. This hapless group, 1500 strong, landed on the north shore of today’s Dominican Republic in 1494, only to find a land of sand and hardship, not the streets of gold they’d expected. Catastrophe piled on top of catastrophe in the form of hunger, disease, hurricanes, and conflicts with the indigenous people. Mutiny not unnaturally followed, and four years after the settlement was established, the few hundred remaining settlers abandoned the effort and returned home.
This failed first European town in the New World left behind a treasure trove for archaeologists, however. Among the finds was about 100 pounds of galena, a lead ore containing silver. Medieval people used galena to determine how much silver a substance contained. They could create galena with a known amount of silver, or galena could be found and its silver content compared with galena containing the known amount of ore.
Why is all this galena lying around?
For many years, scholars had thought that the galena found at the settlement, which its founders had called La Isabela after the financier queen, was the result of the settlers’ discovery of silver in the area. The odd thing was, no settler ever left a written record of such a discovery. Given the 100 pounds of it and the detailed records people on such expeditions tended to leave, such a find usually would have earned a mention.
In addition to the pounds of galena, researchers also found several hundred pounds of slag, which turned out to be lead silicate with flecks of silver in it. This slag also could have been the result of settlers’ attempts to extract silver from a local discovery. But again, there was no mention in the record of what would have been a significant operation, given the 400-plus pounds of slag. The galena and slag were discovered near a building that was used to store royal property.
Starving and desperate for silver
To address the discrepancy between the written record and archeological inference, a group of researchers applied chemical analysis to the galena and slag and compared it to known samples of Caribbean ores. They found that the galena and slag did not come from a Caribbean location and instead probably traveled with the settlers from Spain. The researchers speculate that the settlers, starving and desperate, were frantically trying to extract silver from items in the royal coffers.
Supporting this idea is the fact that the lead in the galena would normally have been more useful to them, for things like musket balls or supports for a ship. The waste, in the form of the lead silicate slag, was of no use to them at all.
An expert in medieval chemistry told the researchers that people of that era commonly mixed galena with ores they thought might contained a precious metal, using galena with a known quantity as a marker for how much gold or silver their discovered ore contained. This explanation may provide the reason the settler had galena with them in the first place.